Financial Statements: The primary goal of financial accounting is the preparation of financial reports.

For the purpose of clarifying the financial position and profitability of the company on a specific date and providing useful financial information to the users , whether inside or outside the establishment.


the establishment represent a structural presentation of the financial nature of its financial position and the transactions it has completed.

Generally, financial statements aim to provide information about the financial position, activity results and cash flows that benefit a wide range of users  in decision-making and help to show the results of the administration’s use of the available resources.


To achieve this objective, the financial statements provide data on the following:

  1. Assets,
  2. Liabilities,
  3. Equity,
  4. Revenues and expenses including profits and losses,
  5. Other changes in equity and
  6. Cash Flow.

This information – in addition to other information contained in the notes supplementing the financial statements – helps the users of the financial statements in forecasting the future cash flows of the establishment, especially the timing and likelihood of generating these cash flows.


To achieve this goal, the International Accounting Standard No. 1 “Presentation of Financial Statements defined the general considerations for presenting the financial statements and provided an explanation of their structure and the minimum components of the required financial statements. And the income statement, as well as in the presentation of the statement of changes in equity.




Read about the auditing process step by step

So that the integrated financial statements must include the following components:

  1. Balance Sheet
  2. Income Statement
  3. Changes in Equity Statement.
  4. Cash Flow Statement.
  5. Supplementary Notes, including a summary of the most important accounting policies and any other explanatory notes.

Documents required to start preparing financial statements:

Accounting Cycle
Accounting Cycle

Preparing financial statements

  • Recording in the journal based on the evidence, supporting the occurrence of the financial process.
  • Posting from the Journal record to the ledger record, and the trial balance.
  • Preparing the trial balance of totals and balances.
  • Preparing the closing entries in the journal record and migrating them to the ledger to show the results of the final accounts.


Functions of financial statements:

  • Measure the assets that fall into the ownership of the company.
  • Measuring the obligations arising from the rights owned by the company (which are liabilities and the rights of capital owners).
  • Measuring the changes that occur to those assets, liabilities and the rights of capital owners.
  • Linking these changes to specific time periods.


Classification of the changes referred to as follows:

  1. Revenues, expenses, gains, and losses.
  2. Other changes in assets, liabilities, and capital rights.
  • Expressing the above in monetary units, as it is the general unit of financial measurement.
  • Preparing financial statements and periodic reports on the company’s assets, liabilities, rights of capital owners at a specific point in time, net income, and parts thereof, and cash flows during a certain period of time.

what is audit process step by step (1)

Process audit: This type of audit verifies that processes are working within established limits. It evaluates an operation or method against predetermined instructions or standards to measure conformance to these standards and the effectiveness of the instructions

The general model of the audit process consists of the following basic stages:

–        Client acceptance.

–        Planning the audit process.

–        Tests and audit guides.

–        Evaluation and release of the report.

A.  Definition of auditing Definition

Auditing of accounts means examining the internal control systems, data, documents, accounts, and notebooks of the project under scrutiny, with a systematic critical examination, with the intention of coming up with a neutral technical opinion about the extent of the significance of the financial statements about the financial position of that project at the end of a known period of time, and the extent to which they portray the results of its work in terms of profit or loss during that period.

Thus, the audit process includes Examination, Verification, and Reporting.

Examination and Verification

The examination is intended to ensure the correctness and integrity of the measurement of the operations that have been recorded, analyzed, and classified, that is, an examination of the mathematical measurement of the financial operations of the specific activity of the project.

As for the Verification, it is intended to judge the validity of the final financial statements as a valid expression of the project’s business for a specific financial period, and as an indication of its financial position at the end of that period.

Thus, examination and verification are two interrelated functions intended to enable the auditor to express his opinion on whether the measurement processes of financial transactions have led to establishing a fair picture of the outcome of the project’s work and its financial position.

As for the report, it is intended to crystallize the results of the examination and verification and prove them in a report presented to those who are interested in the matter inside and outside the entity, which is the conclusion of the audit process, in which the auditor expresses his / her neutral technical opinion on the financial statements as a whole in terms of their portrayal of the project’s financial position and its operations in a sound and fair manner.

The expression “Fair Presentation” means the data contained in the financial statements are consistent with the reality of the project, and this requires these data to be accountably sound and adequate, meaning that nothing has been omitted and that the auditor certifies all of this.

Also, read the Auditing Effective Techniques 


 In general, the objectives of the audit can be limited to several aspects, the most important of which are:

1-   Ensuring the accuracy and correctness of the accounting data recorded in the books and records of the project and determining the extent of reliance on them.

2- Obtaining an impartial technical opinion on conforming the financial statements to what is recorded in the books and records.

3-   Discovery of errors or fraud that may exist in the books.

4-   Reducing the chances of errors and fraud through sudden auditor visits to the project and strengthening the internal control systems used by him.

Auditing Goals

Today, the audit process has diversified these goals into other goals and purposes, the most important of which are:

  1. Monitoring the established plans and following up on their implementation.
  2. Evaluating the results of the project work in relation to the set objectives.
  3. Achieving the maximum possible production efficiency by eliminating wastefulness in all aspects of the project’s activity.



B.   Types of audit

There are several types of auditing that differ according to the angle through which the audit is viewed. But the performance levels that govern all types are the same. In general, the audit categorizes – according to different points
of view – into the following:

I.      First: In terms of the Scope of Audit:

a)    Complete Audit.

b)   Partial Audit.

II.   Second: In terms of the Timing of Audit:

a)    Final (Balance Sheet) Audit.

b)   Continuous Audit.

III. Third: In terms of the Staff of Audit

a)    Internal Audit.

b)   External Audit.

IV.     Fourth: In terms of Degree of Compulsion

a)    Mandatory Audit.

b)    Optional Audit.

V.    Fifth: In terms of the Comprehensiveness

a)   Ordinary Audit.

b)  Investigation.

What follows from this chapter is an explanation of all these different types.

The audit in terms of the Scope of Audit

Complete audit: here, the auditor examines the entries, documents, and records with the intention of reaching a neutral technical opinion on the validity of the financial statements as a whole.

This type was fully scrutinized in detail (Detailed Audit).

The auditor examines any restrictions and the other 100% were on the projects audited accounts are small in size and its operations are few in number. This has turned into a (test Check audit).

As a result of the development that occurred in the business world and the accompanying emergence of large industries and joint-stock companies, so that it did not become reasonable for the auditor to audit all operations, records, and documents.

The adoption of the sample and test method in auditing increased the projects’ interest in internal control systems. Because the number of tests and the size of samples depends on the degree of robustness of those systems used, the auditor increases the percentage of his tests if these systems are weak and there are gaps in them.

Thus, it becomes clear that the difference between these two types of audits lies in the difference in the scope of the audit process only. The authority of the auditor in both types cannot be limited in any way, as he alone has the right to decide the scope of the audit process.

Partial audit: Here, the auditor’s work is limited to some operations and items without others, such as being entrusted with checking cash-only, or inventory… etc. In this case, he/she cannot come up with an opinion on the financial statements as a whole, but the auditor’s report is limited to what has been identified for him/her of the issues.

It is desirable here for the auditor to obtain a written contract that clarifies the scope of the audit process entrusted to him so that he is not accused of negligence or failure to perform the audit of a clause that he was not originally entrusted with auditing, thus protecting himself through the contract from any such responsibilities.

The audit is in terms of the Timing of the Audit.

 Final audit:

The auditor is assigned to carry out such an audit after the end of the financial period to be audited because the accounts have been closed in advance, and it is a feature of this type of audit that it is blamed for:

  • His / Her failure to discover what is on the books of errors or fraud if they occur.
  • Taking a long time may lead to the report being submitted on time.
  • Confusion to work in both the auditor’s office and the client, as the bookkeeping dates coincide in many client projects for the same office, which leads to the sacrifice of some accuracy in performance in exchange for speeding up the work, in addition to that the work may stop for some time until the auditor collects evidence and the necessary clues.

*    It is clear that this type is suitable for application in small or medium enterprises and is limited in most cases to fully and detailed auditing of the elements of the financial statements, especially the budget, and for this reason it is often called the budget audit.

Continuous auditing:

Here the auditor checks the accounts and documents on an ongoing basis, as he makes multiple visits to the facility subject of auditing throughout the period he audits, and then at the end of the year audits the final accounts and the budget. It is clear that this type is suitable for auditing large establishments, as it is difficult to audit them through a final audit.

This type of audit has the following characteristics:

  • The auditor has sufficient time to enable him to get to know the establishment better and to audit more fully.
  • Rapid detection of fraud and error in a short time instead of leaving it until the end of the year.
  • The regularity of work in the auditor’s office and in the project as well, due to the wide scope of time for auditing.
  • Reducing the chances of tampering with the books because of the psychological impact of repeated visits by the auditor on the project staff.
  • The completion of the work on time without negligence or delay by the project staff, due to the auditor’s hesitation in the facility as well.


But despite these advantages, the constant scrutiny of the following blames:

  • The possibility of the establishment employees changing or deleting numbers or entries in documents and records after checking them, whether in good faith or with intent to cheat to cover embezzlement, depending on the fact that the auditor does not return again to audit those documents and records.


  • Here, the auditor can avoid this occurrence by placing certain signs or symbols in front of the data or account balances that he audited and verify their validity, or by taking a note of the account balances that he finished auditing until the date of the audit.


  • Suspending the work of the employees of the accounts department from time to time when visiting the auditor to check what has been proven in the books and records, but he can overcome this by his good choice for the periods in which he visits the facility.


  • The possibility of the auditor neglecting to complete some of the things he left open on his last visit. However, he can overcome this by referring to his observations, in addition to the existence of an audit program in which the auditor confirms the work that has been accomplished step by step.


  • The possibility of acquaintance and friendship links between the auditor and the project’s employees due to his frequent reluctance to the project, which causes embarrassment to the auditor when he discovers fraud or error in the project books, or when writing the report.

The potential for this ongoing audit process to turn into a chore.

However, the auditor can avoid this by introducing modifications in the audit program, which must be flexible.

The audit is in terms of the Staff of Audit.

Internal Auditing:

This audit is carried out by an internal body or auditors affiliated with the facility, in order to protect the facility’s funds and to achieve management objectives such as achieving the greatest possible administrative and productive efficiency for the project and encouraging adherence to administrative policies.

External audit:

its main purpose is to conclude a report on the fairness of the general budget portrayal of the company’s financial position and the fairness of portraying the final accounts of the results of its business for the relevant financial period. Therefore, it is carried out by a neutral external person independent of project management. That is why this type is sometimes called a neutral or independent audit.

It should not be borne in mind that the existence of a sound system of internal auditing obviates the auditing of accounts by an independent external auditor, because of the above differences between the two types, the most important of which is the lack of neutrality in internal auditing because the internal auditor is subordinate to the administration that serves its objectives, while the principle of independence in external audit Where the auditor here is a remunerated agent for the majority of the shareholders or the owners of the project.

Audit in terms of the Degree of Compulsion

Mandatory auditing:

This is the audit that the law stipulated that must be carried out. Then the penalty can be imposed on companies that fail to do so and do not provide Reports of their final accounts and financial positions audited by licensed account auditors. This type is sometimes referred to as legal audit Statutory Audit It is not true that this should be fully scrutinized.

Optional audit:

which is required by the establishment’s owners without a legal obligation to do so. This is the case for individual projects, LLC, and joint ventures), and this may be fully or partially according to the desire of the establishment owners and as indicated in the contract concluded between the auditor and the client.

The audit was first optional, and a long period of time passed until it became legally binding when the minds of those in charge of the economy generated the need to respect the provision of the neutral external account audit component, and to include it in the statutory company contracts the provisions related to this aspect.

For whom is interested to be an auditor:

C.  Definition of auditor:

An auditor is a person who possesses the required academic and practical qualifications and who takes the work of accounting and auditing a regular profession that he practices after obtaining a license to do so from the official authority in the state. In the USA, AICPA is the association responsible for certifying the external auditors.

D.  The scientific and practical qualification of the auditor

The auditor must have scientific competence as well as practical competence in addition to his knowledge.

Most of the countries in the world have stipulated the availability of the following academic qualifications in the auditor, namely: Obtaining, as a minimum, a bachelor’s degree in commerce (accounting major) or one of the academic degrees in commercial, financial, or economic sciences whose study programs include accounting materials in order to gain the auditor’s familiarity and knowledge of all types and branches of accounting.

E.   Personal characteristics and the basis of professional behavior of the auditor:

1-     Personal characteristics:

The most prominent universally recognized qualities in the personality of an auditor are:

  • Skill and great caution in carrying out his work and estimating the responsibility entrusted to him/her.
  • To be honest, impartial, and fair during the exercise of his work.
  • To be secretive and trustworthy, keeping the secrets of the projects whose accounts, he audits, and not to use the secrets obtained for the benefit of any other institution.
  • He should be endowed with perseverance and brave work and say the truth in his reports without favoritism.


2-     The foundations of professional conduct:

  • Members of the profession adhere to fair competition among themselves, and they are not entitled to resort to advertising or propaganda, or to enter into wage tenders, or to pay commission in exchange for a job.
  • That the wage is commensurate with the effort, it is not permissible to accept low wages that are not commensurate with the effort made to compete with another colleague by accepting a wage less than what he would receive.
  • When there are multiple auditors in a single project, they must cooperate and divide the work between them in a way that secures the public interest.
  • Not accepting the engagement with a job with any project weakens the objectivity of providing professional services and his role as one of those responsible for strengthening and improving the profession.


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Effective Governance: There are five elements that we consider are essential for governance to be effective. Although the elements are important in their own right, those involved in public administration need to consider how they apply to the particular context of the organisation or project that they are involved in. This applies to members of governing bodies and also to chief executives and senior managers who report to, and work with, governing bodies. The elements apply to organisational (or corporate) governance and programme or project governance.

What is Governance?

This section is not intended to be a definition of governance or how it should be conducted, but instead a description of what is meant by the elements in this part of the survey. Sector/Organisational Governance Policy Governance structures need to be set up in advance of setting up an organisation, or more likely a group of groups, such as a team, department, board, group, section, or department. Having a clear governance policy will help define what the governing body should do, how they are going to do it and who is responsible for what. Governance policies should be explained in a way that enables members of the organisation to understand how their organisation will be governed, who is responsible for doing what, how they should work together, and how decisions will be made.

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Principles of Governance

The essential elements of the model we have developed are “operational”, “communications”, “legislation”, “financial and contractual arrangements”, “staff”, “involvement” and “accountability”. These provide a framework of principles that, when applied and integrated into an organisation, can lead to effective and efficient governance. We believe that good governance is the cornerstone for accountability and effectiveness. Good governance has to be about the people involved in the organization or project, and about what they and the organisation are trying to achieve. It requires clear accountability and responsibility of everyone involved. This should be about achieving common goals and enhancing performance.






What is the importance of the accounting program?

It is what your startup or even an existing company might be looking for, as the lack of a good bookkeeping system that would provide warning signals that the company may run out of cash is one of the main reasons for companies failing, and you can choose to set up a bookkeeping system manually (using accounting books) Or, electronically (spreadsheets) or using an accounting program.


Planning to choose the best accounting software

Every business has different accounting software requirements. When choosing an accounting program, consider the following questions:


Why buy and pay cash for an accounting program, when you can mentally figure out how much you earn?

Accounting is a business process that records business changes related to assets, liabilities, capital, income, and total costs.

In short, accounting is concerned with everything that has value in your company, whether it’s physical resources like furniture, computers, or vehicles, or intangible values ​​like software and patents, including human capital and employees.


Accounting is no longer done manually, a new time has come with new technologies that have greatly improved efficiency, speeded up the process and made it easier for accountants through the best accounting software.

The accounting software helps in the fast and efficient implementation of accounting operations in business systems.

Since the accounting function of every business system involves repetitive and routine operations, the implementation of this type of program is practically inevitable.


Therefore, the best accounting software is being introduced among the first in modern business.

Using this type of software is an effective way to record the costs, debts, and claims of a business system.

Based on the recorded data, the special units allow the accounting program to process the data specified by the user and create the necessary reports.


The most important features that you should look for when choosing the accounts program for your company:


Establishing a bookkeeping system through the best accounting software.

When you prepare your financial records, you need to ensure that they meet any compliance requirements such as GST or any other tax compliance.

This is done by preparing classifications, also known as a book of accounts, as the chart of accounts is a list of all the accounts needed to cover the financial transactions of the company.

Ratings are used to separate profit and loss accounts to show where the company achieves or loses money, and it is also used to determine the company’s overall financial position on the balance sheet.


1-    What are the characteristics of the best accounting software?

The following are the characteristics of the best accounting software that are able to change the way a company operates:


What are the key performance indicators (KPIs) for accounting software

The KPIs of the best accounting software inform management and employees of the efficiency of the department and also align employee activity with company goals:


How to choose the right accounting program

Today, it has become easy, as you can use a consulting company to provide different accounting solutions, so, in order to choose the right choice among the best accounting programs, here are some things that must be considered and done before making the final decision:


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2-    Data security in the accounting software used.


Financial Audit techniques

Effective financial auditing is critical for companies to simplify the cash flow and business process. Below are the important steps that we as audit firms use to conduct an effective financial audit.


1.    Reviewing internal reporting systems

Accounts and company financing details must be accurate in order to conduct a thorough audit. If there is a problem in the reporting cycle, it is crucial to stick to this ASAP. All documents, including bills, receipts and bank statements. It should be processed as soon as possible after its release if important pieces of data are not made available in time, which is the internal accounting process itself.


2.    Examine and evaluate data storage procedures

Electronic records of all transactions from the last fiscal year should be on file and readily available to keep things simple. It is preferable that the printed versions of this data be copied in electronic form by scanning or manual entry.

If there are data archives from previous years, they should be accessed with the same ease under the data protection law, and personal information such as customer data should be kept only for as long as necessary.


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3.    Review accounting systems and processes

This step requires a steady and regular methodology. Go through every aspect of the accounting system to ensure you have all the necessary information.

Closely watch for mistakes made due to human error – chances are you will discover at least one mistake.

The accounting system should include an exemplary program to detect and correct errors that occur in human input.


4.    Measure the current fraud threats and risks

What internal controls are currently in place to protect against financial risks? Where are the weaknesses, and how do you deal with them? Determine who has the ability and information to access financial records, and how each process is protected to prevent theft and discourage fraud. Customer confidentiality is a major consideration, and possible data leakage and tampering should not be investigated.


5.    Compare internal and external records

While the scope of the audit should not reach the scope of a separate external audit, it is important to ensure that the financial statements provided to shareholders and other interested parties match what is going on behind the scenes.

Verify that the numbers included in the statement of cash assets are published internally. Financial performance records and income reports match those submitted to outside organizations. Directly compare purchase receipts from suppliers with internal records of these transactions, where appropriate, to ensure that they provide the same information.


6.     Examine the tax return, reports and records

The period for keeping tax records on file varies from country to country within five years from the date of filing the tax return.

Verify that the tax reports submitted are toll with internal records of returns and taxes paid. Pay more attention to areas where the numbers are likely to be artificially inflated, such as annual expenditures or revenues.



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    Role of Financial Auditor

    The process of auditing and reviewing accounts is one of the matters
    that guarantee the fairness, correctness, integrity and accuracy of accounting
    procedures, and the conditions for scientific and professional qualification
    when making the appointment of the auditor with the availability of technical
    capabilities to carry out the task of auditing and reviewing in accordance with
    the sound professional standards followed.

     Many modern companies
    use information technology and rely on that technology to process data and
    information that conduct their business, or use them in the manufacturing or
    marketing aspects, or provide services or use them in the areas of knowledge
    sharing for everything that happens in the global economic market.

    With such importance that companies attach to the use of information
    technology, their use in the field of auditing has become an urgent need, for
    the accuracy of the electronic database they provide to the auditing service
    applicant, which is reflected in the credibility of the results.

    Opportunities for a new auditing profession

    The widespread use of the spread of computers and its various programs provides new opportunities for the profession of auditing and makes it able to provide various services to customers, and provide special tools to solve various problems, and it has become obligatory for them to adapt to these new technologies in the operation by reducing the risk of information associated with that, by the auditors possessing technical knowledge That gives them the possibility of positive treatment.

    The process of auditing the use of information technology methods and the emergence of computerized systems has witnessed an increase in the interest of those in charge of auditing to serve different sectors, including the auditing sector, by seeking to provide a level of knowledge that leads to the acceptance of those in charge of information systems to use this technology because this is beneficial to internal and external auditors and even the recipients of the service.

    International standards for internal auditing and the use of modern technologies

    In its 2017 version, the Institute of Internal Auditors issued some new standards related to modern technologies, which are related to the professional practice of internal auditing. The standards developed by the Institute included a set of recommendations related to the use of electronic software in auditing, namely:

    –         That the internal auditors have sufficient knowledge to deal with the risks and controls of information technology, and a thorough knowledge of technology-based auditing techniques.

    –         Auditors should consider the internal audit need to use technology-based auditing and various other techniques of data analysis techniques.

    –         The need for the internal audit activity to assess the support and assistance that achieves the strategic objectives of the organization by the Information Technology Governance Department.

    Benefits of using modern electronic systems.

    1.      Independence in collecting information and data from the entity that is subject and without any harm to its data and programs.

    2.       Assist in analyzing information and data that are consistent with the pre-set and specific objectives of the audit.

    3.       The speed required in the process of collecting data and then processing it with the same speed, which improves performance and returns in the audit work by making use of the time used in the completion of the tasks related to the audit.

    4.       The ability to deal with a large volume of data and information at the same time, in a dynamic way.

    5.       Helps discover anomalies and anomalies in the data.

    6.       It helps in identifying and detecting defects and weaknesses in the internal control systems.

    7.      Availability of internal audit expenses that are spent on transportation and telephone in the case of companies that have branches in remote areas.

    8.       It records and documents the stages of the audit.

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    The risk of using technology in auditing.

    The types of these risks vary according to the complexity of using the technology, as there may be no physical protection for hardware and software and their exposure to cases of misuse, vandalism and environmental damage (such as fire, heat, and humidity), unauthorized access to electronically stored files, the possibility of changing them inappropriately, loss of data These are all risks that are stored centrally in electronic records, which require the establishment of strict control procedures.


    Classifying the risks of using technology in an audit

    The Information Audit Committee has classified the risk diversity of the International Audit Standards Committee into two types:

    1.      Risks arising from the IT infrastructure:

    –         Inadequate normal security measures to prevent unlawful access to information or inappropriate disclosure of it.

    –         Exposure to high temperatures, water leaks, fires and other natural disasters.

    –         Emergency procedures and plans are often inadequate and do not have the required safety measures.

    –         Most of the infrastructures do not have adequate support measures and support, and do not have the necessary control to block and prevent attempts to access information.

    2.      Risks that arise from IT applications:

    –         Application errors and problems.

    –         Insufficient input, processing and output controls. Uncoordinated or undocumented changes in programs. Designed around applications.

    –         Insufficient procedures for securing software integrity related to IT infrastructure security.

    –         The fraud risks associated with electronic commerce resulting from the existence of a commercial and financial commitment from fictitious companies, and the risks of information security, such as unauthorized access to data files, changing their contents, transferring them, or intercepting them before transferring, or disrupting the work of the system.

    –         Risks of using electronic transfers for money laundering.

    –         The absence of an international legal system that governs international commercial transactions through the global information network, the possibility of violating the privacy of users through piracy operations, the possibility of hijacking customer-related information as realistic credit cards and the site being vandalized or misrepresented.

    –         The risks of completing deals and transactions related to the need to ensure the reliability of the information available on the networks.

    These risks can be summarized.

    1.      Human risk, which is resulting from:

    –         System management error, computer error.

    –         Programming error and analysis of systems and programs.

    –         Unauthorized disclosure of information.

    –         Unauthorized use of software systems.

    –         Fraud, manipulation, and abuse.

    –         The risks of viruses that lead to the destruction or distortion of information.

    2.      Material risks arising from:

    –         Lack of suitable environmental conditions, such as power failure, or equipment failure due to humidity, heat, and water.

    –         Risks of exposure to file, program and network access.

    –         Incorrect maintenance of hardware and software.

    –         Reducing information risk.

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    Internal Audit

    What is an audit about?

    Learn what you need to know about your company’s financial investigations. We will educate you about the three kinds of audits there are, how to plan for an audit properly, how to impact your business, how to find the right auditor, and more.

    What is an Internal audit?

    An internal audit is an assessment of the internal controls and accounting procedures of an organization. These audits help ensure that the company is consistent with laws and regulations and help maintain reliable and timely financial data reporting.

    In a wide variety of industries, regularly planned internal audits are important. Through them, company owners can easily find out pain points in processes, helping them to recognise possible process issues before they become visible in an external audit. In your business, routine internal audits also provide risk control and protection against possible fraud, waste, or financial abuse.

    What is the internal audit process?

    First, a department they want to inspect would be defined by management. Next, an independent auditor will try to gather an understanding of the current method of internal control and perform fieldwork research. This is where the department’s actual auditing starts.

    Once the assessment has been completed, the auditor will follow up with management on the issues they have found, prepare the official auditor’s report, review the management report, and follow up with management to ensure that the recommendations presented are in effect.

    During an internal audit, what happens?

    The appointed auditor will observe, take notes, review records and interview staff during an audit. Auditors will also ask questions and assess the awareness of the company’s general priorities, safety policies, training, and rules and regulations for enforcement by staff.

    They will briefly handle the results until the auditor is pleased with their investigation. An auditor can express the strengths and deficiencies of the department during a meeting when giving their recommendations. They will also check details for consistency with management and inquire for any conflicts.

    After the details are met, the auditor’s report is finalized and expectations for changes to be made are provided to management. To fix any problems, management and the auditor will both agree to a timetable. When all agreed-upon problems are satisfactorily implemented, the audit is formally closed.

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    How much do they perform internal audits?

    Depending on the circumstances and timetable, an internal audit may be carried out on a regular, weekly, monthly, or annual basis that best suits the needs of an organization.

    Audits are instruments that management should use to conduct an overall evaluation of their organization and each department within it. In general, internal audits should be carried out regularly enough to find concerns and to avoid enforcement problems.

    To allow a department time to prepare documentation and records, internal audits may be planned in advance or they may be a surprise if unethical or illegal activity is suspected.

    How to make plans for an internal audit:

    1.      Prepare an internal strategy for an audit.

    An internal audit schedule is a list of all the audit activities and duties that will have to be carried out during the agreed time span. This should be discussed with the auditor, and reviewed by the leadership team. Determining specific measures, processes, and the key focus of the audit is critical.

    2.      Make your staff ready.

    It is good practice to offer departments notice if the audit is regulatory, so that they can have all appropriate financial records and materials ready. Audited agencies may also be interested in the implementation of the required improvements proposed by the auditor, such as new training standards or new training requirements or revisions in compliance policies.

    Who is carrying out the internal audit?

    An internal auditor who is an employee of the company usually performs internal audits. Internal auditors do not need to be registered public accountants (CPAs), but can receive the certification of a certified internal auditor (CIA), requiring them to comply with accepted requirements regulated by the Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA).

    Why is an internal audit being conducted?

    The main aim of an internal audit is to analyze and enhance the quality of administration and activities, to provide risk management, and to give your organization more control over essential financial processes.

    The areas of concern in a department would be identified by a properly conducted audit and introduced to management in an understandable way. This helps management to make educated choices about how to fix problems in the future and to build the required action plans for discrepancies.

    External Audits

    What is an external audit?

    An analysis undertaken by an independent accountant or accounting firm is an external audit. This kind of audit results in a checked certification of a company’s financial statements. For all publicly owned entities, these approved documents are needed and may be demanded by shareholders, investors, and lenders if there is a perceived inconsistency in the reports.

    Independent audits are important in the sense that their approved reports eliminate any prejudice and doubt in the state of a company’s financial position. All external audits carried out in the United States comply with the same requirements as the widely agreed auditing standards (GAAS) set by the Auditing Standards Board (ASB) of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA).

    What is an external audit process?

    An external audit begins with either an impartial auditor’s appointment or recruiting. This means hiring someone who will be audited external to the company. In general, at the Annual General Meeting, shareholders may nominate an auditor.

    Next, there will continue to be external auditing. In order to obtain complete knowledge of all the activities of the organization, the auditor may collect, review and analyze data. This involves checking the accounting reports of the company, looking at financial statements in order to obtain proof, verifying compliance with standard accounting practices, and confirming the purchased assets.

    The auditor will submit their report and state their objective opinion once they feel their investigation is satisfactory. The findings of an external audit and the opinion of the auditor can seriously influence a company’s reputation and future. The opinion and rating of an auditor can mean whether a company stays in business or not.

    Check our External Audit Service from here: External Audit Services

    During an external audit, what happens?

    An auditor will thoroughly review your financial and performance records during an external audit. This includes checking whether these records are accurate and complete, whether these records have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted principles, and whether your financial statements represent the financial position of your company correctly.

    The process of the auditor involves going through the records used to generate each financial statement and re-creating them to see whether they were correctly created. In order to try to identify differences and irregularities that might be a sign of incorrect financial reporting, they will also compare your business to others in the same industry.

    The auditor will prepare and deliver an auditor’s report to your business at the end of the external audit, including the audit details and findings. This will include the discrepancies identified in the financial reporting and any non-compliance with your company’s relevant rules and regulations.

    How frequently are external audits carried out?

    A business will generally not have more than one external audit per year.

    Because of the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933 and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, publicly held companies are legally required to conduct annual external audits. The results of this audit must be submitted to a party related to the government.

    At the random request of an entity, an external audit also takes place to confirm that the accounting records follow standard practices. For example, an external audit may occur when a part of a company’s financial statements is questioned by a government entity. Some instances where an audit may be ordered are when tax fraud is detected by the IRS, when shareholders feel that the company does not produce GAAP-compliant financial statements, or when illegal activities are suspected by the court due to the spending of business funds.

    Who is carrying out an external audit?

    An external audit is carried out by an external auditor working for an independent accounting company. Generally, a Certified Public Accountant (CPA) must be an external auditor and must follow the U.S. Auditing Standards Generally Accepted (GAAS).

    How to prepare for an external audit:

    1.      Make your team ready.

    It is wise to designate a “audit liaison” or “audit manager” within your team in preparation for your audit, who will act as the main contact for the auditor. This will run smoothly through the audit process and prevent miscommunications between the team and the auditor. They should be referred to the audit manager whenever the auditor has a question or request. A wise choice is an experienced team member who has very strong project management and communication skills when picking an audit manager.

    2.      Get your records ready.

    You should expect to receive applications from the auditor for additional information and documents during the audit process. These may range from proof supporting a particular transaction, such as receipts, to more thorough descriptions of the process and controls of your company. Keeping a detailed list of all records you provide to the auditor during the process is wise and keeping track if any of your records are taken off-site.

    Why is an external audit being carried out?

    The key objective of an external audit is to verify the financial statements of a corporation and to ensure the integrity of the financial results. The findings of an external audit verify that the company’s financials are right and safe for third parties.

    While external audits are often necessary, due to the importance of a checked auditor’s report, some organizations find it useful to conduct them voluntarily. If a small business or nonprofit applies for grants, it may be helpful to provide checked and reliable financial statements. For certain contract bids or grant requests, audit reports may also be a prerequisite. Several businesses also find that conducting an external audit is a way to help build public confidence in their company.

     Internal Audit vs External Audit

    Internal Audit vs. External Audit

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